Bibliography: Nazi Gold
1. Ain, Stewart. "Nazi gold stored in NY:    Federal Reserve stash may
contain fillings pulled from Jewish victims of Holocaust".    Jewish Week 209,
no.21(September 20, 1996): 1.
Note: According to recently
declassified documents, a pile of gold bars, believed to be the largest   
repository of gold in the    world, is stored in the Federal Reserve Bank of New
York vaults in lower Manhattan. The    declassified State Department documents
indicate that the cache includes tons of Nazi gold    found at the Merkers salt
mine in Germany.    
Filed in the Library at A8.


2. Ansembourg, Jan. "The Netherlands". In Nazi gold: the London Conference,  
  2-4 December 1997, 355-356. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note:
The Netherlands delegation will be covering three issues at this conference:   
where did the looted gold come from and what happened to it?; what steps have
been taken    to compensate occupied countries and individual victims?; and,
what should be the next    steps?   
Shelved in the Library
at HV6665.G3L66 1997.


3. Arsever, Sylvie. "Five key technical points on the issue of unclaimed   
funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   

Note: The five key technical points to be considered: legal
requirements, proof,    anonymous accounts, intermediaries, and fraud.    

Filed in Library at A3.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Technique.E.html


4. Arsever, Sylvie. "The matter of Jewish funds implicitly reveals
Switzerland's    relationship with its Jewish community". Journal de Gèneve et
Gazette de    Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note:
Repeatedly since 1944, Jewish organizations claimed that possessions stolen from
    Jewish individuals or communities must be used for Jewish rebuilding. Where
no one    survived to make claim, the money must be given to Jewish
organizations for aiding victims    and renewing the Jewish culture. For
decades, Swiss Jews, as a small minority, were not    heard; in the 1960s, some
demands were met. At this time, Switzerland is reconsidering all    the orphan
fund issues, determined that examining the past will promote democracy.    

Filed in Library at A6.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Communaute.E.html


5. "Bank of England: the Bank of England's role as custodian of the
Tripartite    Gold Commission's holdings of gold". In Nazi gold: the London
Conference, 2-4    December 1997, 31-41. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Shelved in the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


6. Beker, Avi. Movements of Nazi Gold: uncovering the trail. Policy studies
no. 9.    Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 28 pp.    

Note: A moral confrontation is taking place in Europe as a
result of the campaign for    the restitution of Jewish property during the
Holocaust and the end of the Cold War with    the collapse of Communism. More
than twenty commissions have been named to investigate    national behavior
during the war and to see how stolen Jewish property was dealt with    after the
war.


Summary filed in Library at B1.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study09.html.


7. "Belgium: the gold of the Belgian monetary institutes". In Nazi gold: the 
   London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 67-70. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: Following the invasion of Belgium in 1940, the
Germans removed the Belgian gold    deposited at the Bangue de France and
transferred gold and foreign currency the Belgians    were forced to sell.   

Shelved in Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.


8. Beranek, Milan. "Steps taken hitherto to compensate occupied countries and
    individual victims". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997,
249-252.    London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: Noting that
Czechoslovakia never received reparations from Germany, the author   
concentrates on what the now Czech Republic has done in the area of compensation
of    victims on its own.


9. Berggren, Henrik. "Suppressing the memory of recent events". DN: Dagens   
Nyheter (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).   
Note: Sweden was a
rich post-war country partly due to its wartime actions.   In this interview,
author-journalist, Maria-Pia Boethius, tells of transit shipments   of German
troops through Sweden to Norway and Finland, iron ore exports to Germany,  
Swedish censorship, and other examples showing that Swedish neutrality amounted 
  to support for the Germans/.
Filed in Library at B8. 


10. "Bern, December 19, 1996: Naming of the Independent Commission of Experts
and    instructions of the Federal Council: historic and legal research on the
fate of assets in    Switzerland resulting from National Socialist rule". In
Report to the Treasurer of    New York State and the Comptroller of New York
City, 4-page Section 6A. n.p.: Credit    Suisse Group, Swiss Bank Corporation
and Union Bank of Switzerland, December 1, 1997.    
Note:
Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs release on the naming of the   
Independent Commission of Experts chaired by Jean-Francois Bergier. The
Commission is made    up of historians including Holocaust specialists, World
War II historians and two economic    historians knowledgeable about Swiss
history of the World War II period. Their assignment    is to study the part
played by Switzerland and its financial role within the context of    World War
II.


11. Bower, Tom. Nazi gold: the full story of the fifty-year Swiss-Nazi
conspiracy to    steal billions from Europe's Jews and Holocaust survivors. New
York: HarperCollins, 1997.    381 pp.    
Note: This story
of Switzerland's painful progress toward dealing with its WWII    treatment of
Jews explores issues that have had little attention paid to them in the past.   

Shelved in library at HG3204.B68 1997.


12. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for documents on Nazi Gold". The Record:  
News from the National Archives and Records Administration 3, no.5(May 1997):  
5-6, 23-24.
Note: In 1944, the US initiated a "Safehaven
Program", involving   a number of federal agencies, to identify and stop the
movement of Nazi assets   out of Germany so that the Allies would be able to
recover and repatriate them.   Records of these activities and those of
reparation groups at the end of the   war make up a tremendous store of
information relating to Holocaust assets in   the holdings of the National
Archives at College Park. Recent interest in these   records has resulted in
increased research activity at Archives II.
Filed in
Library at B7.
Online:  
http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html




13. Bradsher, Greg. "Documenting Nazi plunder of European art: records   in
the National Archives provide research base for tracking works seized during  
war". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration  
4, no.2(November 1997): 7, 9.
Note: Bradsher gives details
about the participation of US government   groups in WWII cultural restitution
activities that led to the great number   of records collected in the National
Archives at College Park.
Online:   www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html



14. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for records relating to Nazi Gold: Part   II".
The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration   4, no.5
(May 1998): 7-11, 46.
Note: Greg Bradsher's overview of
Nazi Gold research activities at NARA   notes that the number of researchers
looking at looted assets issues has grown   mightily since researchers from
Senator D'Amato's office began working at Archives   II in early 1996. At the
behest of President Clinton, an Interagency Group on   Nazi Assets, including
NARA, issued its first report on Allied efforts to restore   assets stolen by
Nazis during the war; the report included Bradsher's 300-page   NARA finding aid
to the records at Archives II.
Online:  
http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/records-and-research/index.html




15. Braun, Stephen. "Bitter secrets and a cache of gold". Los Angeles   
Times(November 25, 1996 Washington edition): A4.   
Filed
in
Library at B4.


16. "Brazil: how is Brazil dealing with the Nazi gold issue?". In Nazi gold: 
   the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 71-72. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: The Brazilian government has set up a Special
Commission charged with identifying    and investigating Nazi assets believed to
have been brought into the country.   
Shelved in NARA
Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.


17. British policy towards enemy property during and after the Second World
War.    History Notes No. 13. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office,
Historians in Library and    Records Department, April 1998. 144 pp.    

Note: This report concludes that the reunification of
Germany in 1989 and the collapse    of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact changed
the face of Europe in a way that those    responsible for administering enemy
property policy during and after the Second World War    could never have
anticipated. Great Britain's recognition of the independence of the    Baltic
States in 1991 reopened the question of British use of former Baltic Central
Banks'    gold reserves leading to the transfer in 1992-1993 to each Baltic
State gold equal to that    deposited with the Bank of England in 1940.
Individual victims seeking property they had    held in the UK before the war
can find in this report the policies and machinery for the    seizure and
release of property.


18. Brown, Bobby. "Israel". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December
    1997, 315-316. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: This
presentation reminded the listeners of the Evian conference in 1938 to   
discuss the plight of Jewish refugees.   
Shelved in the
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.


19. Busterud, John A. "The treasure in the salt mine". Army - Arlington   
(Association of the United States Army) 47, no.3(March 1997): 47-51.   

Note: At the end of WWII, US and Allied forces discovered
looted art deep in a mine    near Merkers, Germany. The author, commander of
both munitions and security platoons, was    assigned the task of guarding and
ultimately removing the wealth and art from the mine.    
Filed
in
the Library at B2. 


20. Campiche, Christian. "Mediators seek a definitive settlement of the
Jewish    funds affair". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19,
1996).   
Note: Intermediaries are jostling to reach an
agreement with figures ranging from    millions to billions of dollars.    

Filed in Library at C2.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Deal.E.html



21. Campiche, Christian. "What goes through a Swiss banker's mind when
questioned    about Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de
Lausanne(November 19,    1996).   
Note: The author gives
an account of how the Swiss banking establishment is handling    the matter of
orphaned Jewish funds.    
Filed in Library at C8.    

Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Banquier.E.html


22. Carpozi, George. Nazi gold: the real story of how America and Europe
plundered    Jewish treasures. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizons Press, 1998. 400 pp.



23. Castelmur, Linus von. Schweizerisch-alliierte Finanzbeziehungen im
šbergang    vom Zweiten Weltkrieg zum kalthen Krieg: Die deutschen Guthaben in
der Schweiz zwischen    Zwangsliquidierung und Freigable
(1945-1952)/Swiss-Allied financial relations during the    transition from World
War II to the Cold War: the German property in Switzerland in    between
compulsory liquidation and voluntary release (1945-1952). Zurich: Chronos, 1992.
    421 pp. (Revised version of author's PhD from the University of Basel, 1991).
   
Note: The treatment of the German assets in Switzerland
was a central issue for the    Swiss Foreign Ministry to resolve after the
Second World War. It was not only about    important material interests, but
also about the position of Switzerland within the newly    formed system of
international relations. From the Allied viewpoint, Switzerland had   
compromised itself by its cooperation with the German National Socialism. Thus
the Allies    demanded exptradition of the booty and all other German assets
that had made their way to    Switzerland. The author reconstructs the
negotiations from 1945 to 1952 showing how the    Swiss Foreign Ministry
overcame its isolation within the world community.


24. Clement, Piet. "The Bank for International Settlements during the Second
World    War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 44-60.
London: HMSO,    1997.    
Note: The aim of this paper is
to provide a brief overview of the wartime activities of    the Bank for
International Settlements (BIS), focusing in particular on the gold   
transactions undertaken with the German Reichsbank.   
Shelved
in
Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


25. Clement, Piet. "The Bank for International Settlements during the Second
World    War". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 44-60.
London: HMSO,    1997.    
Note: The aim of this paper is
to provide a brief overview of the wartime activities of    the Bank for
International Settlements (BIS), focusing in particular on the gold   
transactions undertaken with the German Reichsbank.   
Shelved
in
the Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


26. Cline, Francis X. "Wartime envoy on Nazi gold bristles at hindsight". New
    York Times(May 25, 1997): 3.   


27. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World
War: interim    report. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, July
1998.    
Note: The interim report deals with the handling
by the Central Bank of Sweden    (Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.   


28. Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the Second World
War: list of    unclaimed bank accounts at Swedish banks. Stockholm, Sweden:
Ministry for Foreign Affairs,    May, 1997.    
Note: The
interim report deals with the handling by the Central Bank of Sweden   
(Riksbank) of Nazi gold during WWII.   
Filed in Library at
S16.    


29. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Disposition
of assets    deposited in Swiss banks by missing Nazi victims. Washington:
Government Printing Office,    1997. iv, 549 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess.,
Committee Serial No. 104-76, December 11, 1996).   
Note:
Hearing to consider claims that WWII victim assets are still in Swiss banks in  
  unnumbered accounts opened by Jews lost in the Holocaust as well as Nazi
accounts opened    to hold funds seized from Jew. The Committee investigation on
problems of locating these    assets heard from Senator Alfonse D'Amato on the
handling of unclaimed assets and other    witnesses including: Stuart E.
Eizenstat, Thomas Borer, Edgar Bronfman, Paul Volcker,    Georg Krayer, Rolf
Bloch, Arthur Smith, Jacques Picard, James H. Hutson, Veronica B. Katz    and
Alice B. Fischer.    

30. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Financial Services. The
Eizenstat report    and related issues concerning United States and allied
efforts to restore gold and other    assets looted by Nazis during World War II.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1997.    313 pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess.,
Committee Serial No. 105-18,).   


31. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss
banks and    the shredding of Holocaust era documents. Washington: Government
Printing Office, 1997. 29    pp. (105th Cong. 1st sess., S. Hrg. 105-152, May 6,
1997).   
Note: Hearing on the recent events which related
to the inquiry into the assets of    Holocaust victims deposited in Swiss banks
including the circumstances surrounding the    shredding of bank records
believed to pertain to business dealings during the Nazi rule in    Germany.   



32. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Swiss
banks and    the status of assets of Holocaust survivors or heirs. Washington:
Government Printing    Office, 1996. iii, 73 pp. (104th Cong. 2nd sess., S. Hrg.
104-582, April 23, 1996).   
Note: Hearing on the
circumstances surrounding the deposit of assets into Swiss banks    by European
Jews and others, the methodology utilized by the financial institutions in   
recording and maintaining these accounts and the response by Swiss banks to
claims and    inquiries made by Holocaust survivors or heirs regarding these
accounts. Witnesses    included Edgar m. Bronfman, Greta Beer, Hans J. Baer and
Stuart E. Eizenstat.   


33. "Contribution of the Historic Archive Directorate of the Hellenic
Ministry of    Foreign Affairs". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4
December 1997, 295-299.    London: HMSO, 1997.    
Shelved
in
the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


34. "Denmark". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997,   
251-252. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: The Germans did not
seize Danish monetary gold because part of the gold reserves    were deposited
in New York and stayed there during the war. As a result, no claims were    made
to the Tripartite Godl Commission although claims were presented to the Paris   
Conference on Reparation in 1945 as a result of losses suffered during the
occupation.   
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66
1997.    


35. Dertilis, G. B. "Results of the steps taken to compensate the country and
    individual victims". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997,
300-301.    London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: Approximately 80%
of the gold claimed by Greece after WWII was restituted; the    rest represented
looted private holdings with incomplete claims. The author notes other    claims
that have not been met including silver, an imposed loan to Nazi Germany.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


36. Die Schweiz und die Goldtransaktionen im Zweiten Weltkrieg:
Zwischenbricht    (Switzerland and gold transactions in World War II: interim
report). Bern: Independent    Commission of Experts, May 1998. 286 pp.    

Note: This interim report of the Independent Commission of
Experts, popularly known as    the Bergier Report, provides contextual
information on the gold which the Swiss National    Bank bought from the German
Reichsbank. The report notes that it was clear during 1943    that German
Reichsbank transfers might include gold from occupied countries; however,   
although the report confirms that the Reichsbank deliveries included victim
gold, there is    no evidence that the responsible Swiss National Bank parties
had knowledge of this.   


English summary filed in Library at S8.    
Online: http://www.uek.ch; English summary at http://www.switzerland.taskforce.ch/doc/decl_e.htm


37. "Directive by Head of Financial Department of GCB Main Department II to
Minsk    City Commissar, all Regional and Chief Commissars on procedure for
delivering gold and    silver items to the Berlin Pawn Shop.". In "Nazi gold"
from Belarus:    documents and materials, 117-119. Minsk: National Archives of
the Republic of Belarus,    1998.    
Note: In 1941, the
Germans occupied Belarus. Valuables clasificed as Jewish, hostile    state and
ownerless property were confiscated. Silver and gold items were delivered   
directly to the Berlin Pawn Shop.   


38. "Disbursements from the dormant Swiss accounts in the case of Poland".   
Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic
of Poland,    November 1998. 2-page paper.    
Note: In
1949, Polish-Swiss Compensation Agreement negotiations called for the   
restitution of money belonging to Polish citizens on Polish territory on
September 1, 1939    who could not be contacted. It was agreed that Switzerland
would deposit the funds into    the accounts of the National Bank of Poland.
This paper notes that it is false to say that    Poland fulfilled commitments to
Switzerland with this money.   


39. "Dutch gold". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997,   
357-358. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: The Paris Reparation
Act, signed in January 1946, regulated reparation payments    and called for the
restitution of stolen gold. It set up the Tripartite Gold Commission to    which
all countries, victims of Nazi theft, could submit claims for restitution of
stolen    monetary gold. Only half the gold claimed was found and returned
because much German gold    had been transferred to Switzerland. Switzerland
claimed it had obtained the gold legally,    however, to help reconstruct
Europe, Switzerland did make some payment on the claims. The    Dutch received
less than 50% of their gold claim and they have never withdrawn this claim.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.     


40. Easton, Donald F. "The Troy treasures in Russia". Antiquity 69,   
no.262(1995): 11-14.   
Note: Article on the Trojan
Treaures captured by the Red Army from Germany at the end    of WWII.    


41. Easton, Donald Fyfe. "The excavation of the Trojan treasures, and their  
  history up to the death of Schliemann in 1890". In The spoils of war - World
War II    and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural
property, 194-199. New    York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at
international symposium, The Spoils of    War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center
for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York,    January, 1995).   

Note: By the time of Schliemann's death, Troy treasures
were dispersed to Berlin, where    Schliemann deposited the state's share of his
treasures; Constantinople; Athens, where    Schliemann kept his own share; and,
missing items, some of them stolen from the repository    at Constantinople.   



42. "Eight key people in the battle between the United States and Switzerland
over    Jewish funds". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19,
1996).   
Note: "Eight personalities and eight different
approaches to the question of    Jewish funds" is the way the journal approaches
these descriptions of D'Amato,    Bronfman, and Kunin in one camp; Chapuis,
Häni, and Cotti in a second; with Volcker    and Bloch acting as arbitrators.   
 
Filed in Library at E2.    
Online:
http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/People.E.html


43. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Testimony: on the U.S. Government supplementary
report on Nazi    assets. Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Testimony
for Under Secretary of State    Eizenstat for the House Banking Committee on the
U.S. Government supplementary report on    Nazi assets, June 4, 1998).   

Note: Eizenstat notes that the latest report is a follow-up
to the first report which    focuses on the uses to which the looted gold was
put - how it enabled the Nazis to    purchase critical war supplies from neutral
countries.   
Filed in Library at E3.    


44. Eizenstat, Stuart E. Holocaust reverberation: the emerging story of Nazi
gold.    Washington: State Department, 1998. 5 pp. (Address to the United Jewish
Appeal National    Young Leadership Conference, Washington, March 23, 1998).   

Note: The author led an 11-agency federal effort to
establish the facts about the    policies and actions of the US in denying Nazi
Germany the economic capacity to wage war;    and our postwar efforts to recover
the assets looted by Nazis during WWII in order to    compensate looted
countries and individual victims. The report established that the German   
Reichsbank incorporated into its gold reserves looted monetary gold from
governments of    countries occupied by the Nazis; that much of the looted gold
went on Swiss banks; that    neutral countries facilitated the Nazi war efforts
through gold exchange and supplies;    that some victim gold was included in
neutral bank gold; and that the Allies did not make    an sufficient effort to
recover looted assets from neutral countries. Eizenstat told this    group that
Switzerland has recently led the international effort to face its past   
honestly, and suggested goals for sustaining the momentum and moving forward to
secure    justice for victims and heirs.   


45. "The fate of Nazi gold". Maclean's (Canada) 110, no.50(December 15,   
1997): 32.   
Note: Boycotts against Swiss banks have been
suspended as negotiations result in a lump    sum settlement for Holocaust
victims with dormant accounts.    


46. "Federal Reserve Bank of New York". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 
   2-4 December 1997, 253-271. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note:
This paper reflects the historic involvement of the Federal Reserve Bank with   
Nazi gold due to its role as depository for the Tripartitel Gold Commission and
includes a    bar-by-bar inventory; a history of all TGC account activity since
1947; and other    paperwork.   


47. Forsyth, Frederick. "Forsyth proved right". Dagens Nyheter: DN   
(Sweden)(1996).   
Note: In 1971, Forsyth, researching The
Odessa File, was informed that the Nazis had    exported a huge shipment of gold
secretly to Switzerland in the last weeks of WWII as the    result of an August
1944 meeting between German miliary and industrial parties and Swiss    bankers.
The final shipment was to fund a new exiled Nazi party and, one day, a new
Fourth    Reich; it was planned to spirit top SS out of the Allies' hands and
into "safe    havens" abroad by setting up the ODESSA to fund the leadership
abroad, to fund    foreign leaders advocating antiSemitism. Forsyth was shocked
as he delved deeper into the    events after 1945, to find that the Allies had
not scratched the surface of retribution.    The Holocaust was not only a human
crime, it was the biggest robbery in history: Jewish    assets were confiscated,
Jewish labor was exploited in slave labor camps.    
Filed
in
Library at F3.    
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eforsyth.html


48. "France: plunder of Jewish property in France and its restitution". In   
Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 273-278. London: HMSO,
1997.    
Note: This paper offers a chronological list of
legislation passed by the Vichy regime    against the Jewish community. It also
provides information about the looting of French    art, including the brave
story of Rose Valland of the Jeu de Paume museum.   
Shelved
in
the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


49. "From the verbatim transcripts of the court proceedings at the trial for
the    crimes committed by the German fascist invaders in the Bylorussuan SSR.".
In    "Nazi gold" from Belarus: documents and materials, 192-193. Minsk:
National    Archives of the Republic of Belarus, 1998.    

Note: In 1941, the Germans occupied Belarus. According to
transcript, the Germans    imposed Jewish contributions in the District Uprava's
Jewish Board and the valuables were    sent to Berlin. Also, in July 1941 all
Jewish citizens of the city of Vileika were    instructed to come to the
synagogue with their valuables. They were then taken to the    river and shot.   
  
50. Gerasimov, Valentin. "Belarus. Speech 1". In Nazi gold: the London   
Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 61-62. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: Throughout the war years, Belarus was the site of 350
camps and prisons; one in    four inhabitants of Belarus died during WWII.   



51. "German restitution for National Socialist crimes". In Nazi gold: the   
London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 286-292. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: This paper describes the efforts the Federal Republic
of Germany has made to    compensate Nazi victims. The very first efforts were
restricted to property, not to    personal damage but, in 1952, the Luxembourg
Agreement between Germany and Israel    recognized that Israel bore the
tremendous financial burden of providing for many Nazi    victims and provided
for German aid in resettling Jews in Israel. Over the years the    number of
persons eligible for compensation increased; after the fall of the Communist   
bloc, those victims could submit applications for restitution.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


52. Gold transactions in the Second World War: statistical review with
commentary.    Bern: Independent Commission of Experts, December 1997. 21 pp.
(Contribution to the    Conference on Nazi Gold, London, December 2-4, 1997).   

Note: This working paper wars prepared as a technical
contribution to establish for    future discussion a foundation of statistics
and standard definitions of categories of    gold.   
Filed
in
Library at I1.    
Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/news5.htm


53. Haberman, Clyde. "NYC: Bank's gold inspires tales of plunder". New York  
  Times(September 27, 1996 Late edition): 1.   
Note:
Article on the possibility that two tons of gold stored in the vaults of Federal
    Reserve Bank of New are actually part of WWII Nazi plunder deposited in Swiss
banks.    
Filed in Library at H8.    


54. Hancock, Ian F. "International Romani Union". In Nazi gold: the London   
Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 307-308. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: The Third Reich targeted the Romani gypsies for
extermination as the only    racially defined population singled out besides the
Jews. Because of their tradition of    carrying personal wealth on one's person,
there is little paperwork on the topic.   
Shelved in the
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


55. "A harsh report on Nazi gold". Maclean's (Canada) 110, no.20(May 19,   
1997): 40.   
Note: US report is critical of the Truman
administration, Switzerland and other neutral    countries in the trafficking of
gold and other looted WWII assets.    


56. Hedin, Sven Fredrik and G"ran Elgemyr. Sweden and the Shoah: the untold  
  chapters. Policy studies no. 11. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 29
pp., plus    appendices    
Note: Based upon a 1996 Swedish
newspaper series revealing the extent to which Sweden    purchased gold looted
by the Germans, this study reveals that the Swedish traded gold,    traded vital
raw materials, and gave Germany permission to use Sweden as a transit   
corridor for Nazi troops. The study notes the awkward balance between
self-interest and    compassion in recalling Sweden's humanitarian actions to
aid victims of the Nazis.   


Summary filed in library at H5.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study11.html


57. Heintz, Jim. "Nazi gold may top estimate". Associated Press(January 22,  
  1997).   
Note: A Sweden investigative team's report
indicates that Sweden received far more gold    that previously thought and
apparently disregarded Allied warnings that some of it may    have been looted
by the Nazis.    
Filed in library at H7.    

Online: http://www.freep.com:80/news/nw/qnazi22.htm


58. Henry, Marilyn. Switzerland, Swiss banks, and the Second World War: the
story    behind the story. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1997. 42 pp.    

Note: This analysis of Switzerland's banking activities
during WWII and what happened    to Jewish assets in Swiss banks calls for
Switzerland to help the remaining Holocaust    survivors and to engage in "moral
stock-taking" about its business and banking    history. The documents of
"Operation Safehaven", a US military intelligence    operation assigned to
identify and track Nazi assets in neutral countires, indicate that    besides
holding dormant Jewish accounts, Switzerland had stored German assets and
allowed    Germany to exchange gold for currency thereby enabling the Reich's
war effort.    Switzerland's behavior since WWII demonstrates that the Swiss
felt no commitment to    uncover victim assets on their own.   

Shelved in the National Archives Library at D819.S9H46
1997.    


59. Higgins, Andrew. "Macau's golden goose". Guardian(February 7, 1998).   

Note: It is believed that Macau may have a center for
laundering gold looted by Nazis    from Jewish victims and other sources.
Witnesses have testified that weekly shipments of    gold were unloaded in Macao
and sent on to China.     


60. Hirsh, Michael. "Nazi Gold: the untold story". Newsweek(November 4,   
1996): 47-48.   
Note: Newsweek's probe discloses that
after 50 years of financial sifting, there is no    huge stash of Nazi gold in
Switzerland - it has been scattered worldwide. The probe also    indicates that
many other parties, besides the Swiss, and including the Bank for   
International Settlements (BIS), were involved in laundering Nazi money during
the war or    hoarding stolen assets after the war. What little remains of the
estimated $7.8 billion    U.S. dollars in gold confiscated by the Nazis may only
come to $65 million, the amount    held by the Tripartite Gold Commission, set
up after the war to return stolen gold to    national treasuries.    

Filed in the Library at H2.    


61. Holland, Carolsue and Thomas Rothbart. "The Merkers and Buchenwald
treasure    troves". After the Battle no. 93(November 1996): 22.   

Note: Nonmonetary gold found at the huge mine in Merkers,
near Weimar, and also near    the Buchenwald concentration camp may have been
mixed with monetary gold when it was    shipped to the Frankfurt Exchange
Depository (FED) for safekeeping.    


62. Holocaust victims' assets in Swiss banks. Washington: Ace-Federal
Reporters, 1996.    (Transcript of Hearings, United States Senate, Committee on
Banking, Housing, and Urban    Affairs, New York City, October 16, 1996).   

Note: This hearing reviewed the role that Swiss banks and
government played in WWII    with regard to European Jews and others who used
the Swiss banks, as well as the    relationship of Switzerland and its banks
with Nazi Germany. Senator Alfonse D'Amato    chaired the hearing and among the
witnesses were Estelle Sapir, who testified that the    Swiss demanded a death
certificate for her father although she had a bank deposit slip and    ledger
books as part of her claim.   
Filed in the Library at H20.
    


63. Howe, Desson. "A wealth of new information on Holocaust: declassified
bank,    other wartime papers at Archives generate lots of interest". Washington
Post(November    18, 1998): B1, B8.   
Note: This article
focuses on the importance of archival records to the study of    Holocaust
history; because of NARA records, the economic history of WWII is being told, as
    well as the full level of knowledge and complicity on the part of business,
financial, and    political leaders.    
Filed in the
Library at H30.    


64. Hug, Peter and Marc Perrenoud. Assets of Nazi victims in Switzerland and
the    compensation agreements with the Eastern bloc. Bern: Swiss Foreign
Affairs Department,    1997. 142 pp.    
Note: In the Fall
of 1996, the Swiss government's Task Force for the Assets of Nazi    Victims
asked the authors to report from the historical point of view, and using only
the    holdings of the Swiss Federal Archives, on questions about the Holocaust,
victim assets,    and compensation agreements with Eastern European states. The
report was intended to    suggest approaches to identifying beneficiaries with
rights to unclaimed victim assets.   
Filed in library at
H4.    


65. "An ingot nearer to the truth". Economist (London) 345, no.8046(December 
   6, 1997): 56-57.   
Note: Reports on the December 1997
3-day conference on Nazi gold held in London to    explore the source and flow
of gold between Germany and other countries.    


66. "International Union of Former Juvenile Prisoners of Fascist
Concentration    Camps". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997,
309-313. London:    HMSO, 1997.    
Note: People from the
former USSR lost 27 million lives in WWII and had 6 million    people in German
concentration camps (2 million died). The looting of the occupied USSR    states
was total and unrelenting. This claim for fairness in distributing Nazi gold in 
   made on behalf of the victims of Nazism.   
Shelved in
the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


67. Jones, Michael Arthur. Swiss bank accounts: a personal guide to
ownership, benefits    and use. New York: Liberty Hall Press, 1990. ix, 211 pp. 
   
Note: One section of this introduction to the world of
Swiss banking and the type of    accounts available to Americans reports on the
German attempts to halt transfer of German    money to bank accounts abroad.
Charged with finding out who had funds secreted away, the    Gestapo were able
to locate some of the fugitive capital. Their efforts led Switzerland to   
promulgate the Swiss Bank Act of 1934 which provided a legal basis for Swiss
banking    secrecy.   


68. Kaplan, Alissa. "Hot on the paper trail: the profits of plunder".   
ABCNEWS.com(November 6, 1998).   
Filed in Library at K8.  
       


69. Kaplan, Alissa. "Details emerge on assets' fate: 'all of Europe'
benefited    from war booty". ABCNEWS.com(December 19, 1997).   

Filed in Library at K10. 


70. Klich, Ignacio. "Argentina: Nazi war criminals and assets: 2". In Nazi   
gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 23-25. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: The academic coordinator of the Commission of Enquiry
into the Activities of    Nazism in Argentina (CEANA) spoke on Argentins's
interest in reaching an informed estimate    of Nazi war criminal arrivals, as
well Nazi gold as loot entering the country.   
Shelved in
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


71. Koller, Frédéric. "Research bodies multiply. Inventory".    Journal de
Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note:
A review of the various investigations into the question of orphaned Jewish
funds    involving Swiss banking that were under way in November 1996.    

Filed in Library at K4.        


72. Koller, Frédéric. "The inevitable compromises of Swiss neutrality to   
survive the war... and preserve solidarity". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de   
Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note: In this interview,
historian Antoine Fleury claims that it is mythology to    believe that a
neutral country can avoid making concessions. Yet because few countries in   
the world were not assisted during the war by Switzerland's humanitarian
services or its    diplomatic service, its neutral status was respected by both
sides. Even after the war, it    was necessary for Switzerland to compromise
with the Allies or risk being shut out of the    reconstruction of Europe and
the world.    
Filed in Library at K6.        


73. Koller, Frédéric. "What they were saying fifty years ago".    Journal de
Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note:
This short article links to an article written in 1946 about the Washington   
Accords' agreements, noting the legalistic tone of the report.    

Filed in Library at K7.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/50ans.E.html


74. Komisar, Lucy. "Image of the Swiss is tarnished by stolen gold". American
    Reporter 4, no.770(March 20, 1998).   
Note: The author
tracks the background of Switzerland's tarnished banking industry,    noting
that Swiss banks are asking to be judged as financial, not political
institutions.    She suggests that the US consider the integrity of Swiss banks
in weighing the merger of    Swiss banks and US banks.    
Filed
in
Library at K30.    
Online: http://www.american-reporter.com/770/st1.html


75. Kramer, Jane. "Manna from hell: Nazi gold, Holocaust accounts, and what
the    Swiss must finally confront". New Yorker(April 28 & May, 1997):
75-89.   
Note: Kramer looks at the moral issues related to
Switzerland's financial dealings with    the Nazis during WWII and their
attempts to avoid paying Holocaust heirs since the war.    
Filed
in
Library at K20.    


76. Krejci, Jan. "Nekolik poznamek k historil navraceni ceskoslovenskeho
menoveho    zlata (Comments on the history of Czechoslovak gold reserves
recovery)". Pr vnik    125, no.7(1996): 675+.   


77. Kubu, Eduard. "Czech Republic: Czechoslovak gold reserves and their
surrender    to Nazi Germany". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December
1997, 245-248.    London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: Nazis stole
more than 45 tons of gold from Czechoslovakia. The Tripartite    Commission
recognised most of the Czech claim (43.99kg)as the basis of restitution   
proceedings.   
Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66
1997.    


78. Lederer, Edith. "Nazi Gold Conference ends". ABCNEWS.com(December 4,   
1997).   
Note: Report on the 41-nation conference on Nazi
gold held in London discloses that    Switzerland was not alone in their
financial dealings with Hitler's Germany.    
Filed in
Library at L6.          


79. "Legal problems of property restitution in Poland". In Washington   
Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic of Poland,
November    1998. 7-page paper.    
Note: After WWII,
Poland's government was based on the Soviet model with socialist    property
given preferential treatment over private property. After the fall of Communism,
    the new legal system of the Republic of Poland marks the return of property
rights to    pre-WWII status.    



80. Lema, Luis. "Alfonse D'Amato, or how the United States wields   
"western-style diplomacy"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de    Lausanne(November
19, 1996).   
Filed at L3.           


81. Lema, Luis. "Portugal, too, must examine its past". Journal de    Gèneve
et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note:
According to the author, fabulous quantities of gold circulated around Europe,  
  especially the neutral countries. The gold reserves at the Bank of Portugal
quadrupled    between the early 1930s and the end of the war; the question is
how much stolen gold was    accounted for at the end of the war and returned.   
 
Filed at L4.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Portugal.E.html


82. London Conference on Nazi Gold. Stockholm: Swedish Ministry of Foreign
Affairs,    November 1997. 1 page press release.    
Note:
Press release on the London Conference on Nazi Gold in December 1997 reports on 
   steps taken by Sweden to make reparations to the WWII occupied countries and
to    individuals. Release notes that the Swedish central bank, the Riksbank,
appointed an    independent Committee of Inquiry to examine WWII gold
transactions in January, just before    the appointment of a special Commission
on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the Time of the    Second World War.   

Filed at S15.    
Online: http://www.regeringen.se/galactica/service=irnews/action=obj_show?c_obj_id=34644


83. "Luxembourg gold despoiled by Germany during the Second World War". In   
Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 345-350. London: HMSO,
1997.    
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany in 1940.
This paper is a detailed tale of the    assets looted from Luxembourg.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


84. "Luxembourg gold despoiled by Germany during the Second World War". In   
Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 345-350. London: HMSO,
1997.    
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany in 1940.
This paper is a detailed tale of the    assets looted from Luxembourg.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


85. Mamarbachi, Esther. "Switzerland stung by lack of political sensitivity".
    Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   

Note: After a period of political fumbling, Switzerland
created a crisis headquarters    to handle all matters related to the orphaned
funds, assuring the world that Switzerland    would bring the issue to the full
light of day.    
Filed at M7.    

Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Piege.E.html


86. Mamarbachi, Esther. "The amateurishness of Swiss authorities". Journal de
    Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   

Note: The author asks how Switzerland's lack of political
perceptiveness on the matter    of Jewish funds can be explained. She concludes
that the Swiss model of government favors    the nomination of friends rather
than comptetent experts, the safety of the known rather    than the debate of
ideas.    
Filed in Library at M12.    

Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Amateur.E.html


87. Marks, John. "Swiss cupidity, but German evil". U.S. News & World   
Report 123, no.23(December 15, 1997): 9.   
Note: In
recounting the tales of Swiss banks hoarding the assets of Jewish victims and   
the implication of other nationals in criminal activities during the Holocaust,
the author    reminds his readers that the Holocaust was a German undertaking.  
  
Filed in Library at M3.    


88. Mascaro, Maria-Pia. "Washington quietly makes its own investigation".   
Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   

Note: The U.S. State Department began its own investigation
into Nazi gold and other    orphaned Jewish assets this year under the pressure
of new archival documents becoming    public. The investigation, headed by Under
Secretary of State for International Commerce,    Stuart Eizenstat, is headed by
an interdepartmental commission with the first intermediary    report due by
February.    
Filed at M1.    
Online:
http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Washington.E.html


89. Maurice, Antoine. "Jewish funds, ongoing matter of urgency". Journal de  
  Gèneve et Gazette de Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note:
The Journal de Genève began to publish on the issue of "orphaned Jewish   
funds" in 1995. In this editorial, Maurice calls for looking carefully at the
past in    terms of today's risks and difficulties.    
Filed
at
M6.    
Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/Edito.E.html


90. McDowall, Duncan. "Canada: due diligence". In Nazi gold: the London   
Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 80-233. London: HMSO, 1997. (A report on the Bank
of    Canada's handling of foreign gold during World War II).   

Note: Report prepared for the Bank of Canada in response to
a July 1997 allegation    based on an anonymous late-war intelligence report
that the bank of Canada had been party,    by means of paper transfer, to a
complex gold transfer involving six tons of gold shuffled    first between
Switzerland and Portugal in 1942 and later between Portugal and Sweden with   
Canada's central bank playing the role of intermediary.   
Shelved
in
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


91. Meier, Barry. "War's plunder and the Swiss: the new old news of Nazi   
loot". New York Times(November 3, 1996 (Late edition)): 1.   

Note: The tales of looted gold and stolen art treasures
have been around for some time    but in the last few years, everything came
together: the 50th anniversary of WWII and the    end of the Cold War.    

Filed in the Library at M20.    


92. Meier, Barry. "U.S. Archives describes contents of Nazi hoard". New York 
   Times(October 24, 1996 (Late edition)): A10.   
Note: A
recently declassied document indicates that a large cache of art and gold were  
  hidden in German salt mines. This may have been part of a money laundering
scheme.    
Filed in the Library at M8.    


93. Miller, Page Putnam. "National Archives provides leadership in making   
accessible records related to Nazi gold". NCC Washington Update 3, no.6(February
18,    1997): 1.   
Note: Miller praises NARA's efforts to
make its holdings accessbile to Nazi gold    researchers.    
Filed
in
Library at M13.    


94. M"ller, Horst. "Germany: statement". In Nazi gold: the London   
Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 280-285. London: HMSO, 1997.    

Note: In 1949, the government of the Federal Republic of
Germany established the    Institute for Modern History to focus on National
Socialism. This mission was later    extended to include 20th century history
since WWI. Intense research has not been done on    the topic of Nazi gold
because the Americans had confiscated the looted gold still in    Germany. In
this paper, the author assesses the research literature and calls for a   
systematic evaluation of other records, including those of the Tripartite
Commission in    Brussels.   
Shelved in the NARA Library
at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


95. Morgenthau, Henry Jr. "Declaration by Secretary of the Treasury
Morgenthau on    Axis looting, February 22, 1944". In Voices of history,
1944-1945: speeches and    papers, 121-122. New York: Gramercy Publishing, 1945.
    
Note: Declaration that the United States Treasury has
taken steps to protect the assets    of the invaded countries and to prevent the
Axis from disposing of looted assets on the    world market.   


96. Moss, Stanley. Gold is where you hide it: what happened to the Reichsbank
    treasures? London: Andre Deutsch, 1956. 191 pp.    


97. Murr, Andrew and Tom Masland. "The Swiss halo slips again: add Jewish
camps to    Switzerland's list of sins". Newsweek 131, no.4(January 26, 1998):
36+.   
Note: During the Nazi era, the Swiss requested
Germany to add the letter "J"    to Jewish passports and did not extend Swiss
banking-secrecy laws to cover Jews who had to    reveal their account numbers,
secret codes, and balances. Recent research show that the    Swiss not only
denied safe harbor and stole gold from Holocaust victims, but that the    Swiss
also maintained work camps for over 20,000 Jews, including resident Jews.    

Filed in the Library at M5.    


98. Naughton, John. "Internet: finally, there's one place you can go to find
out    the truth about Nazi gold". IntelliSearch: Advanced Business
Intelligence(August 2,    1998).   
Filed at N1.    

Online: http://www.intellisearchnow.com


99. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. Part II: Monetary gold,
    non-monetary gold and the Tripartite Gold Commission. History Notes No. 12.
London:    Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records
Department, May 1997.    58 pp.    
Note: The goal of this
study was to determine whether non-monetary gold, as in    particular, victim
gold, might have found its way into the Tripartite Gold Commission    monetary
gold pool. Based on material from the British archives, victim gold was kept   
separate from monetary gold and only monetary gold added to the TGC pool. If any
victim    gold found its way into the TGC pool it would have been in bars
smelted by Germans before    the Allied occupation, or as coins.    


100. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. History Notes No. 11.
London:    Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and Records
Department, September    1996. 23 pp.    
Note: By 1939
Germany had defaulted on its loans and exhausted its credit; nearly all    trade
was on a barter basis and the nation's economic base was too weak to sustain a
long    war. To solve this problem the Nazis seized gold in national treasuries
when occupying    territories and plundered the wealth of businesses and
individuals, especially that of    European Jews. This report notes that Great
Britain tracked German WWII gold movements,    particularly those involving
neutral powers, concluding that a relatively detailed picture    of German gold
dealing can be reconstructed from the records.   
Filed in
Library at N20.    


101. Nazi Gold: information from the British Archives. Revised. History Notes
No. 11.    London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Historians in Library and
Records Department,    Revised January 1997. 27 pp.    

Note: This edition reports on further activity on the
question of Nazi gold:    consideration of requests from Jewish organizations to
use Tripartite Gold Commission gold    to compensate individual victims; the
U.S. establishment of an interagency Presidential    Taskforce on Nazi gold; the
establishment of an international Committee of Experts to    investigate all
Swiss financial transactions with the Third Reich.   


102. Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997. London: HMSO, 1997.
834 pp.    
Note: The Rt. Hon. Robin Cook, MP, in his
opening speech, noted that the participants    were there to help clarify one of
the darkest episodes in human history, to resolve the    questions of gold
stolen by the Nazis. In his opening plenary statement, Stuart Eizenstat,   
Under Secretary of State, spoke of the common effort to establish a special
survivor fund,    and to conclude the work of the Tripartite Gold Commission
after five decades.   
Shelved in NARA Library at
HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


103. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: summary. Stockholm: Commission on
Jewish    Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War, July 1998. 5 pp.
    
Note: This interim reports deals with the handling by
the Riksbank of Nazigold which    came in the form of bars and coins from the
German Reichsbank during WWII. After the war,    gold known to have been taken
from the treasury reserves of occupied countries was    returned, but the
problem of gold consfiscated from individuals has never been solved. The   
Commission offers a relatively detailed account of the present state of
international    research on victim gold and concludes that there is cause to
critize the WWII governing    board of the Riksbank.   

Online: http://www.regeringen.se/galactica/service=irnews/action=obj_show?c_obj_id=34922


104. The Nazigold and the Swedish Riksbank: interim report. Stockholm:
Commission   on Jewish Assets in Sweden at the time of the Second World War,
August 1998.   105 pp.
Note: This interim reports deals
with the handling by the Riksbank of   Nazigold which came in the form of bars
and coins from the German Reichsbank   during WWII. After the war, gold known to
have been taken from the treasury   reserves of occupied countries was returned,
but the problem of gold consfiscated   from individuals has never been solved.
The Commission offers a relatively detailed   account of the present state of
international research on victim gold and concludes   that there is cause to
critize the WWII governing board of the Riksbank.
Shelved
in
Library at HG3176.N3 1998.


105. Nekhay, O. A. "Belarus. Speech 1". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 
   2-4 December 1997, 63-65. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note:
The speaker asked for a fair distribution of Nazi gold.   
Shelved
in
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


106. New, Mitya. Switzerland unwrapped: exposing the myths. London: I.B.
Tauris, 1997.    xii, 210 pp.    
Note: Account includes
information on Swiss banking and labor camps durng WWII.   


107. Nordmann. Switzerland, the war and the victims of Nazism: financial
relations in    historical perspective. London: Embassy of Switzerland, December
11, 1996. 2 pp.    
Note: Ambassador's remarks about the
Swiss Parliament adoption of a decree calling for    an indepth inquiry
beginning in January 1977 on foreign assets deposited in Switzerland    between
1933 and 1945. There will be a series of interim reports before 2001, the target
    date. At the same time, a Joint Commission chaired by Paul Volker, former
President of the    U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, is auditing dormant accounts in
Swiss banks.   


Ambassador Nordmann's speech is filed in the library at N5.    

Online: http://www.swissembassy.org.uk/news/nordmann.htm#Switzerland


108. Norton-Taylor, Richard. "Nazi gold set to reopen old wounds".   
Guardian(December 1, 1997): 10.   
Note: The author
predicts that the London Conference will spark emotional disputes when   
representatives of 40 countries discuss the gold and financial assets looted by
the Nazis    from the Jews during WWII and beleived to be lying hidden in banks
worldwide. There will    be pressure on the US, UK, Switzerland and the Vatican.
    


109. Note on gold operations involving the Bank for International Settlements
and the    German Reichsbank, 1st September 1939-8th May 1945. Basle: Bank for
International    Settlements, May 12, 1997.     


 
110. Ostaszewshi, Janusz. "Memorandum re: lost Swiss bank accounts". In   
Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets. n.p.: Delegation of the Republic
of Poland,    November 1998. 3-page paper.    
Note: In
1949 Poland and Switzerland concluded two treaties re Polish claims against   
Switzerland for monies held in Swiss banks by Poles who died or disappeated
during WWII.    All bank accounts belonging to Polish citizens residing in
Poland in September, 1939, who    had not contacted Swiss banks by May; 9, 1945
would be transferred to the National Bank of    Poland. Funds were transferred
to Poland in 1960 and in 1975.   


111. Pechota, Vratislav. "The 1981 U.S.-Czechoslovakia claims settlement   
agreement: an epilogue to postwar nationalization and appropriation disputes".  
  American Journal of International Law 76, no.3(1982): 639-653.   

Note: The 1981 Agreement resolved disputes including the
claims of US nationals against    Czechoslovakia resulting from Czechoslovakian
confiscation of foreign property between    1945 and 1981, and the disposition
of Nazi-looted gold recovered by Allied armies at the    end of World War II.   
 


112. Pfirter, Rogelio. "Argentina: Nazi war criminals and assets: I". In Nazi
    gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 21-22. London: HMSO, 1997.   
 
Note: Pfirter spoke on Argentina's firm determination to
establish the facts connected    with Nazism in that country.   

Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


113. Philon, Alexandros. "Greece". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4  
  December 1997, 293-294. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Shelved in
the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


114. Picard, Jacques. Switzerland and the assets of the missing victims of
the Nazis:    assets in Switzerland belonging to victims of racial, religious
and political persecution    and their disposition between 1946 and 1973.
Zurich: Bank Julius Baer, 1996. 30 pp.    


115. Poncet, Charles. "Switzerland: Decree on the legal investigation of the 
   assets deposited in Switzerland after the advent of the National-Socialist
regime and    Decree on the Special Fund for Needy Victims of the Holocaust,
December 13, 1996 and    February 26, 1997". International Legal Materials 36,
no.5(September 1997):    1272-1278.   


116. Preston, David Lee. "Hitler's Swiss connection". Philadelphia   
Inquirer(January 5, 1997).   
Note: One month after Swiss
banking officials and Jewish leaders announced an agreement    to set up an
independent commission, chaired by former US Federal Reserve Chairman Paul   
Volker, to search for the whereabouts of funds deposited in Switzerland by
Holocaust    victims, a Swiss citizen named Francois Genoud committed suicide.
Author David Lee Preston    suggests that Genoud's suicide may be linked to the
new commission as well as to Senator    D'Amato's investigations for the U.S.
Senate Banking Committee and class action lawsuits    against Swiss banks filed
by Holocaust survivors and victims' heirs. Genoud, a Nazi    enthusiast and
friend of Hitler's, worked with Swiss and German intelligence during WWII;    he
was then active in setting up the ODESSA network for the transfer of money from
Germany    and the evacuation of key Nazi leaders at the end of the war.
Postwar, Genoud used his    wartime contacts to become an advisor to Arab causes
and anti-Israel activities.    
Filed in the Library at P3.
    
Online: http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/swiss-and-hitler.html


117. Puto, Arben and Qirjako Qirko. "Albania: on the plundered Albanian gold
by    the Nazis; Jews in Albania". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4
December 1997,    17-19. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note:
During the 1930s, Albania saw an influx of Jewsih refugees from Germany, Poland 
   and Czechoslovakia even after the fascist invasion of Albania by Italy. The
Albanian    people provided help for many Jewish families during WWII. After the
fall of fascist Italy    in late 1943, Albania was invaded by the Nazis who took
the Albanian gold reserves, but    declared Albania independent and neutral.   

Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


118. "Republic of Croatia". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December
    1997, 235-243. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: The
Croatian delegation asks that the remaining Tripartite Commission funds be   
used exclusively for compensation to Nazi victims and renounces the Croatian
government's    share in the distribution of the remaining funds in favor of
Jewish victims.   


119. "The restitution of the monetary gold stolen from Luxembourg by the   
Nazis". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 351-354. London:
    HMSO, 1997.    
Note: Luxembourg was invaded by Germany
in 1940 and liberated in September 1944.   
Shelved in the
NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.     


 
120. Reveille, Thomas. "The purse strings: the art of commandeering money and
    banking". In The spoil of Europe: the Nazi technique in political and
economic    conquest, 89-147. New York: W.W. Norton, 1941.    

Note: In this early report on the plunder of occupied
countries by Germany, the author    tells of the financial and economic
structure imposed on the conquered areas including the    seizure of raw
materials, finished products, machinery, and trains, as well as the   
imposition of a charge for "costs of occupation". Reveille notes that all gold  
  and foreign asset reserves of occupied countries are seized and he tells how
the Nazis    stripped the Jews of property and wealth. The author's chapter
entitled "The Golden    Haul" tells in detail how the gold reserves were taken
and how the Bank for    International Settlements served Nazi purposes.   


121. Rings, Werner. Raubgold aus Deutschland: die "Golddrehscheibe": Schweiz 
   im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Stolen gold from Germany: the "Golden Turn Table":   
Switzerland during WWII). Zurich: Artemis Verlag, 1985. 232 pp.    

Note: This was an early disclosure of Nazi gold
transactions involving both Sweden and    Switzerland. The author was able for
the first time to examine the Swiss National Bank    documents as wll as
relevant German and U.S. records. Rings concludes that the SNB's    cooperation
hinged upon its profit-making interests and its anti-Communist stance rather   
than Nazi sympathies.   


122. "Roundtable: "The ongoing debate is forcing Switzerland to rethink its  
  relations with the rest of the world"". Journal de Gèneve et Gazette de   
Lausanne(November 19, 1996).   
Note: Rolf Bloch, Mauro
Cerutti, Nicolas Pictet, and Verena Grendelmeier debate the    issue of Jewish
funds.    
Filed in Library at R5.    

Online: http://www.geneva-international.org/GVA3/Forum/Dossier/TableRonde.E.html


123. Rubin, Seymour J. "Allied-Swedish accord on the German external assets, 
   looted gold, and related matters". Department of State Bulletin 17,
no.421(1947):    56-61.   


124. Ruth, Arne. "Postwar Europe: the capriciousness of universal values".   
Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 126, no.3(Summer
1997):    241-276.   
Note: The Nazi gold controversy is
hopefully the beginning of a new look into the    national mythologies relating
to the Holocaust. The author asserts that the deeper    dimension of the Nazi
gold controversy is that it reminds us of the fact that the    Holocaust was
only the climax of a policy whereby a state set out to exclude a group of   
citizens as "enemies" of "real", ethnically defined citizens, then    making
much of the population accomplices by allowing them to profit from the
elimination    of the so-called enemy. The policy was largely accepted as an
unavoidable fact by other    national states, and the Holocaust became a form of
robbery combined with murder.    
Filed in the Library at
R29.    


125. Ruth, Arne. "The Holocaust as a business project". DN: Dagens Nyheter   
(Sweden)(May 17, 1997).   
Note: During WWII, Switzerland
served as a curtain for other countries by creating    multinational gold
depository for neutral and non-aligned national states - Sweden,    Portugal,
Spain and Turkey - to use in trading money with the Axis. After the war, at a   
time when the Swiss were claiming that they had not received stolen Nazi gold,
Swedish    officials collaborated the Swiss statements by indicating that they,
too, had trust in    Emil Puhl, who led the day-to-day operations for the German
Reichsbank, and who had    assured the Swedes that no stolen gold had been
transferred to the Swedish accounts.    According to the author, Puhl planned
with the SS how victim gold and other valuables    could be used for the war
effort.    
Filed in the Library at R15.    

Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eaffair.html


126. Ruth, Arne. "Why we are probing into World War II". DN: Dagens Nyheter  
  (Sweden)(October 21, 1997).   
Note: DN's editor Arne Ruth
argues that Swedes must face up to their pro-Nazi    activities in WWII.    

Filed in library at R11.    
Online:
http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/eintro.html


127. Ruth, Arne. "Saved by the Cold War: "The Wallenbergs helped the   
Germans"". DN: Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(November 28, 1996).   

Note: Newly-declassified documents trace the economic links
between German and Swedish    financial circles during WWII. Only the fact that
the Cold War made finding allies more    important than exposing collaboration
with Germany, kept the U.S. from investigating    Wallenberg activities.    

Filed in library at R3.    
Online: http://www.dn.se/DNet/departments/172-static/english/ewallenberg.html


128. Ruth, Arne. "Paul Erdman's thriller opens the Swiss bank vaults". DN:   
Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(May 17, 1997).   
Note: The Swiss
Account, by Paul Erdman, put the World Jewish Congress on the track of    the
Nazi gold and what happened to Jewish assets during WWII. The book describes the
Swiss    relationship as Nazi Germany's agent in the world market.    

Filed in the Library at R9.    


129. Sayer, Ian and Douglas Botting. Nazi gold: the story of the world's
greatest    robbery. New York: Congden and Weed, 1984. xx, 423 pp.    

Note: An account of how the Nazis swept up much of Europe's
gold to serve their needs.    


130. Scally, William. "U.S. report details close Swiss-German war ties".   
Reuters(December 17, 1996).   
Note: According to an
official 1945-1946 report, gold deposits in Swiss banks doubled    between
1939-1945 due to Nazi gold deposits. The report also states that Swiss industry 
   was geared to the German war effort and Swiss banks used for German financial 
   transactions.    
Filed in Library at S17.    


131. Schemo, Diana Jean. "A Nazi's trail leads to a gold cache in Brazil".   
New York Times(September 23, 1997): 1.   
Note: Albert
Blume was born in Germany where he became a member of the Nazi Party. He   
moved to Brazil in 1938 and left a cache of gold when he died. Brazil's
commission to    investigate Nazi war criminals contends that Blume was sent to
Brazil as a spy and later    as a channel for gold.    


132. Schneeberger, Ernst. "Property and war, in particular the   
Swiss-American-German conditions". Georgetown Law Journal 34(March 1946):
265-287.   


133. Schueler, Kaj. "Switzerland's gold trading overshadows Sweden's". DN:   
Dagens Nyheter (Sweden)(1998).   
Note: The author asks
whether Sweden could have stayed out of the war without making    concessions to
Germany.    
Filed in the Library at S3.    


134. Simpson, Christopher. America's recruitment of Nazis and its effects on
the Cold    War. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988. xv, 398 pp.    

Note: According to the author, anti-Communist appeals made
in Italy after WWII were    funded by US "black currency" that came from
captured Nazi German assets    including victim gold and currency.   


135. Smith, Arthur Lee. Hitler's gold: the story of the Nazi war loot.
Oxford: Berg,    1996. xix, 174 pp.    
Note: An account of
how assets looted from Holocaust victims, and from the treasuries    of occupied
nations, became a pawn in the Cold War struggle between the US and the Soviet   
Union, and how the issue has remained unresolved. Smith examines the Safehaven
program and    the post-war restitution negotiations.   


136. Stanglin, Douglas. "Follow the money". U.S. News & World Report 124,
    no.1(January 12, 1998): 15.   
Note: Found among the
documents at the National Archives recently is a brief    intelligence report
asserting that a Croatian priest, in contact with the Vatican and    sponsor for
Croatian Fascists hiding in Rome after World War II, worked with this group to  
  hide millions in gold looted from Jews and gypsies at the Vatican. It is
alleged that he    also provided the Fascists with assistance in fleeing to
South America. The Vatican has    denied the charges but refuses to open related
files.    
Filed in Library at S10.    


137. Steinberg, Jonathan. The Deutsche Bank and its gold transactions during
the Second    World War. Munich: Oscar Beck, 1998.    

Note: The Historical Commission to Examine the History of
Deutsche Bank in the Period    of National Socialism was appointed by the
Deutsche Bank in December 1997 because the Bank    decided that it had to take
up the issues which the debate on gold had aroused. The bank    had already
established both an historical archive and an institute for study of the   
history of the bank. A history of the bank had been published, but the
availability of new    Soviet archival sources made another closer study of the
gold dealings of the largest    German commerical bank under conditions of total
war advisable. Historians appointed    included Avraham Barkai, Gerald D.
Feldman, Lothar Gail, Harold James, and Jonathan    Steinberg, the principal
author of the report. Their investigation showed that the Bank    did trade in
victim gold during WWII. In his conclusion, Steinberg concluding that their   
guilt began in 1933 when they tolerated the outrages which ruined their
colleagues noted    that the Deutsche Bank directors "profited from the
disappearance of Jewish    colleagues and rivals and went on pretending that
business could go as usual".   
Filed in Library at S6.    




138. Steinberg, Jonathan. Why Switzerland? 2d ed. Munich: Cambridge
University Press,    1996. xvi, 300 pp.    
Note:
Steinberg, European historian at the University of Cambridge, attempts to answer
    three related questions about Switzerland in this book: why has such an
exception to    European norms survived? What can the non-Swiss learn from its
idiosyncracies? Can so    unusual a society continue when many of the conditions
behind its development no longer    exist? The author describes the uniqueness
of Switzerland: its direct democracy, universal    military service, its four
national languages, its wealth, its lack of centralization of    state and
economy, and its lack of integration into the European Union. After the   
publication of this edition, Jonathan Steinberg, appointed by the Deutsche Bank
of    Switzerland to The Historical Commission to Examine the History of
Deutsche Bank in the    Period of National Socialism, served as principal author
of the report The Deutsche Bank    and its gold transactions during the Second
World War.   


139. "The story of the gold deposited at the Bank of Italy (1943-1958)". In  
  Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4 December 1997, 323-344. London: HMSO,
1997.    
Note: In 1943, the German military ordered the
transfer of the Bank of Italy's gold    reserves to the North to keep it away
from the Allied advance. It was transferred in two    shipments in September to
Milan and then later to an armoured tunnel in Fortezza. In 1944    the gold was
signed over to the Germans and a shipment was made to Berlin in February. A   
second shipment was sent to Switzerland to settle Swiss National Bank debts and
then    another shipment was sent to Berlin. In 1945 all the Italian gold was
moved from Berlin -    some of it was sent to the Merkers salt mine.   

Shelved in the NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.     

140. "Study: Swiss banks stashed gold taken from Nazi camp victims". CNN   
World News(May 25, 1998).   
Note: A study by a panel of
international historians discloses that the Swiss National    Bank (SNB) stored
victim gold in its vaults.    
Filed in the library at C7. 
   
Online: http://cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9805/25/nazi.gold


141. Stuttaford, Genevieve. "The Swiss, the gold, and the dead: how Swiss
bankers    helped finance the Nazi war machine". Publishers Weekly 245,
no.5(February 2, 1998):    73.   
Note: The review claims
that Ziegler's book is the fullest picture to date of Swiss    complicity in
Nazi German war crimes of WWII.    
Review is filed in
Library at S15.    


142. Swardson, Anne. "New British study adds impetus to the hunt for Nazi
Gold in    Swiss vaults". Washington Post(September 12, 1996): A28.   

Note: A British Foreign office report's claim that Swiss
banks may be holding more than    $6 billion worth of Nazi gold stolen from
nations and individuals and transferred to Swiss    banks added to the pressure
faced by the Swiss banking industry.    
Filed in Library
at S9.    


143. Sweden and the Nazi Gold. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in
Sweden   at the time of the Second World War, December 2-4, 1997. 19 pp.
(Conference   paper presented at the London Conference on Nazi Gold, December
2-4, 1997).  
Note: A report on Swedish progress toward
ascertaining whether Sweden   knowingly received gold from Nazi Germany during
WWII that had been seized from   the central banks of occupied countries or had
been stolen from Jewish victims.   The conference report describes Swedish
negotiations with the Allies after the   war, describes investigations into
dormant bank accounts and other private property   that took place in the 1960s
and notes the progress on work of the Riksbank   and the Commission itself.

Filed in Library at S12.



144. "Swiss banks, Nazi plunder". Atlantic Unbound(June 26, 1997).   

Note: Noting the recent govenment report, "U.S. and Allied
efforts to recover and    restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by
Germany during World War II," the    Atlantic Monthly explores Nazi past through
its articles beginning in September 1946.    
Filed in
Library at S21.    


145. Terms of reference. Stockholm: Commission on Jewish Assets in Sweden at
the time    of the Second World War, February 13, 1997. 4 pp.    

Note: Summary of the assignment of the Commission to be
appointed and charged with the    task of investigating: Swiss dealings with
property, including gold, belonging to Jews and    acquired from Nazi Germany
before and during the war; Swiss handling of bank deposits and    other assets
of Jews after the war which as a result of the Holocaust remained unclaimed;   
and claims that German-Jewish property was liquidated by the Foreign Capital
Control    Office.   
Filed in library at S13.    

Online: http://www.ud.se/english/nazigold/nazigold.htm


146. Toshkova, Vita. "Bulgaria: anti-Semitic legislation in Bulgaria,
1940-44: a    case study of some aspects". In Nazi gold: the London Conference,
2-4 December 1997,    73-77. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note:
Anti-Semitic legislation enacted in Bulgaria facilitated the looting of Jewish  
  gold there. The legislation, modeled after Germany's Nuremberg laws, limited
the right of    Jews to participate in Bulgaria's economy and political life.   

Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


147. "Vatican drawn into scandal over Nazi-era gold". CNN World News(July 22,
    1997).   
Note: Vatican sources have denied that the
Vatican served as a repository of Nazi gold    after WWII. A newly declassified
document, dated October 21, 1946, and declassified on    December 31, 1996,
states that the Vatican held 200 million Swiss francs for Croatian    fascists
and notes rumors that it may still have be at the Vatican or have been sent to  
  Spain and Argentina through a Vatican "pipeline".    
Filed
in
the library at C5.    
Online: http://cnn.com/WORLD/9707/22/nazi.gold/index.html


148. Vogler, Robert. The Swiss National Bank's gold transactions with the
German    Reichsbank from 1939 to 1945. Zurich: Swiss National Bank, 1984.    



149. Warner, Alison. "Search for a golden fleece". The Banker (London) 147,  
  no.856(June 1997): 26-27.   
Note: This article about the
gold market brings up the role of the Swiss as bankers and    financial brokers
for the Nazis and the recent uproar over "victim gold". The    furor has led to
a revaluation of the Swiss National Bank's gold reserves and the decision    to
sell some of the gold to support the Swiss Foundation for Solidarity, a
foundation set    up to restore Switzerland's humanitarian image.    

Filed in the Library at W5.    

150. Weinbaum, Laurence. Righting a historic wrong: restitution of Jewish
property in    Central and East Europe. 3d ed. Policy studies no. 1. Jerusalem:
World Jewish Congress,    1995. 41 pp.    
Note: Most
Jewish properties looted by the Nazis were later seized by the Communists   
before they could be claimed by their rightful owners. The collapse of the
Soviet Union    and its hold over Central and East Europe has given Jews a new
opportunity to reclaim lost    property. In 1992 the World Jewish Restitution
Organization (WJRO) was formed to negotiate    Jewish communal claims. The WJRO
has found a disturbing pattern of national laws    restricting the rights of
Jews to reclaim their property.   


Summary filed in library at W3.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study01.html


151. Weinberg, Gerhard L. Testimony. Washington: House of Representatives,
1998.    (Testimony by Gerhard L. Weinberg, before the House Banking &
Financial Services    Committee, in Washington, June 25, 1997).   

Note: Noting that the Eizenstat report is in general very
sound, Weinberg points out    aspects which he believes need greater emphasis.
First, Switzerland knew that Germany had    no funds because they had borrowed
from the Swiss in order to make purchases during    1940-1942. Not only did
Switzerland have to know that any future deposits of gold and    valuables were
loot; in fact, the legal position of the Swiss was that looting was legal    and
the looter can convey legal title to another. Even after the war, in 1949, the
Swiss    signed an agreement to Poland whereby the Polish looted the Swiss
accounts of Holocaust    victims. Secondly, as late as April 1945, the Swiss
signed a secret agreement with the    German government which violated an
agreement made with the Allies a month earlier; the    agreement was made solely
out of greed for money. Finally, Weinberg believes that the    Allied concern
that the Swiss government, and the Red Cross, might renounce their role    with
prisoners of war held by Germany, kept the Allies from pressuring the Swiss   
government.   
Filed in Library at W4.    

Online: http://www.house.gov/banking/62597ger.htm


152. The whereabouts of the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank. Bundesarchiv 
   R4-2850/18. Berlin: Bundesarchive (Federal Archives) and the Deutsche
Bundesbank (F2    Historical Archives), 1998.    
Note:
This research report focuses on the records of the Deutsche Reichsbank, in   
particular the records of the Precious Metals Department, the Foreign Exchange
Department    and the Securities Department after the collapse of the Reich in
1945 and after the    liquidation of the Reichsbank in 1976. The need for such a
research report became evident    in 1997 when U.S. OMGUS records were found to
show that more documentation of the Precious    Metals Department of the German
Reichsbank had survived the end of the war than was    previously known and that
these records contained information on victim gold transactions.    This
research did not turn up this documentation; among the missing records were the
26    "Melmer" folders of acceptance/delivery receipts for victim gold that   
accompanied 76 shipments delivered to the Deutsche Reichsbank, records which had
been    evaluated by American authorities after the war.   
Shelved
in
the National Archives Library at HG3055.W4 1998.    


153. Winkler, Hans. "Austria". In Nazi gold: the London Conference, 2-4   
December 1997, 27-29. London: HMSO, 1997.    
Note: Austria
has taken the findings of the Commission headed by Secretary Eizenstat as    a
starting point for their investigation into events surrounding the illegal
seizure of    the official Austrian gold reserves by the Nazi regime.   

Shelved in NARA Library at HV6665.G3L66 1997.    


154. "World War II allies attacked at Nazi gold conference". CNN(December 3, 
   1997): 2 pp.   
Filed in Library at C6.    


155. Zabludoff, Sidney. Movements of Nazi Gold: uncovering the trail. Policy
studies    no. 10. Jerusalem: World Jewish Congress, 1997. 28 pp.    

Note: In today's dollars, the Nazi-looted gold amounts to
more than $8.5 billion. More    than 2/3 of that sum came from the treasuries of
occupied countries; the rest came from    gold taken from individuals and
businesses. 35% of the gold was found by the Allies in    Germany and Austria;
most of the rest of the gold was funneled by Germany through    Switzerland to
purchase strategic gold and services from foreign countries during WWII.    The
author presents a flow model to provide a framework for consideration of all
elements    of gold movement and concludes that Switzerland has not returned all
the looted gold    stored there.   


Summary filed in library at Z1.
Online: http://www.wjc.org.il/publications/policy_studies/pub_study10.html

10/18/2012

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